Chapter 2 - The Jewish East End

by Jason Lever


Posted on Sun, 01 Dec 2013 13:23:44 GMT


First port of call of the Lever family

The term “East End” came into regular usage at the time of the great wave of Jewish immigration into this central-eastern area of the capital city from the 1880s. References can be found as early as 1861, such as in Henry Mayhew’s London (ref: Kalman).

In William Booth’s magisterial “Life and Labour of the People of London” studies of the 1880s, the boroughs of Bethnal Green, Stepney, Poplar and Shoreditch were the East End.

By the time of its updating forty years later, Hackney and Stoke Newington, and also East and West Ham, Barking, Leyton, Walthamstow and Tottenham, were included in this wider definition in the “New Survey of London Life and Labour” (ref: Lipman).

A Toynbee Hall survey by its trustees in 1899 showed a central core of about three-quarters of a mile in which nearly all streets had at least 50% – and about a quarter of them 95% or more – Jewish residents (ref: Lipman). A decade earlier, Booth/Llewelyn Smith survey research had found that Bethnal Green, Stepney and Poplar were three of the five poorest areas of inner working-class London in 1889 (ref: Weightman & Humphries).

The exact boundaries of the Jewish East End have been contended, especially given Jewish out-migration into the metropolitan London areas of Dalston, Stoke Newington, Hackney, Clapton and Stamford Hill in the first third of the twentieth century, before subsequent moves into suburban London either side of the Second World War.


Jewish-East-End Toynbee-Hall

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Chapters

Chapter 1 - Introducing Solomon Lever and his l...Chapter 2 - The Jewish East EndChapter 3 - A family history of Solomon LeverChapter 4 - A Jewish East End education for Sol...Chapter 5 - Joining East End cultural and commu...Chapter 6 - Solomon as a cabinet makerChapter 7 – From cabinet maker to trade union g...Chapter 8 – Rise of the London Jewish Bakers UnionChapter 9 – Dealing with the challenges of a de...Chapter 10 – Solomon’s journey to Jewish trade ...Chapter 11 – Interlude of anarchism’s appeal to...Chapter 12 – Solomon Lever finds his home in th...Chapter 13 – The Liberal and Conservative partiesChapter 14 – The Labour Party consolidates its ...Chapter 15 – The appeal of East End councils’ s...Chapter 16 – The rise and fall of communist sup...Chapter 17 – Surging Labourism after the warChapter 18 – The Labour Party’s support for Zio...Chapter 19 – Short-lived Labour-Zionist honeymoonChapter 20 – Solomon Lever’s 1947 broadcast spe...Chapter 21 – Solomon Lever’s 1948 speech from t...Chapter 22 – Solomon Lever’s 1954 speech from t...Chapter 23 – Solomon Lever’s final TUC speech i...Chapter 24 – His Worshipful The Mayor and Mayor...Chapter 25 – Family connections in the Mayor’s ...Chapter 26 – Important social issues raised wit...Chapter 27 – The adbuction of Solomon LeverChapter 28 – Discovery of Solomon’s bodyChapter 29 – InquestChapter 30 – The death of Solomon LeverChapter 31 – Solomon’s funeral and obituaryChapter 32 – The death knell of the London Jewi...Chapter 33 – An appraisalChapter 34 – Bibliography