by Jason Lever
Posted on Sun, 01 Dec 2013 13:23:44 GMT
First port of call of the Lever family
The term “East End” came into regular usage at the time of the great wave of Jewish immigration into this central-eastern area of the capital city from the 1880s. References can be found as early as 1861, such as in Henry Mayhew’s London (ref: Kalman).
In William Booth’s magisterial “Life and Labour of the People of London” studies of the 1880s, the boroughs of Bethnal Green, Stepney, Poplar and Shoreditch were the East End.
By the time of its updating forty years later, Hackney and Stoke Newington, and also East and West Ham, Barking, Leyton, Walthamstow and Tottenham, were included in this wider definition in the “New Survey of London Life and Labour” (ref: Lipman).
A Toynbee Hall survey by its trustees in 1899 showed a central core of about three-quarters of a mile in which nearly all streets had at least 50% – and about a quarter of them 95% or more – Jewish residents (ref: Lipman). A decade earlier, Booth/Llewelyn Smith survey research had found that Bethnal Green, Stepney and Poplar were three of the five poorest areas of inner working-class London in 1889 (ref: Weightman & Humphries).
The exact boundaries of the Jewish East End have been contended, especially given Jewish out-migration into the metropolitan London areas of Dalston, Stoke Newington, Hackney, Clapton and Stamford Hill in the first third of the twentieth century, before subsequent moves into suburban London either side of the Second World War.
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